How to treat diabetes

How to treat diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease that is caused by a deterioration in the functioning of the pancreas or a violation of the interaction of insulin with cells. This hormone is responsible for the utilization of glucose and regulates carbohydrate metabolism.

Young patients are increasingly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes – insulin-dependent. Its cause is a genetically determined autoimmune disorder in which pancreatic cells responsible for insulin production are affected. The disease can occur as early as 6 months of age after suffering rubella or ingestion of antigens with food. Type 1 diabetes cannot be treated without insulin because the body cannot produce it.

In recent years, cases of non-insulin dependent diabetes (type 2 diabetes) have become more frequent in children and adolescents. The main reason is an incorrectly selected diet, physical inactivity (a sedentary lifestyle).

The rarest form is neonatal diabetes mellitus, which occurs in a newborn literally from the first days of life. The disease usually manifests itself in the first six months after the birth of the child. The reason is the pathology of intrauterine development due to insulin deficiency.

How does diabetes manifest itself?

Manifestations of diabetes mellitus are associated with a violation of insulin production or its uptake by cells. This leads to a steady excess of blood glucose – chronic hyperglycemia.

In healthy people, an increase in sugar occurs after eating. With normal functioning of the pancreas and sensitivity of cells to insulin, glucose levels return to normal on their own. The excess is stored in the muscles and liver as glycogen. In diabetics, this process is disrupted. Constantly elevated sugar worsens general well-being, negatively affects the body, causing pathological changes in its work.

What is dangerous diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease that, if left untreated, causes complications in all organs and systems. Vessels suffer the most: excess glucose in the blood destroys the capillaries, reduces the flexibility of the arteries. Organs and tissues cease to receive the nutrients they need.

This leads to the development of coronary heart disease, angina pectoris, atherosclerosis, hypertension, increases the risk of stroke and amputation of the lower extremities.

Diabetic nephropathy is a pathology associated with kidney damage due to the destruction of capillaries. The problem is exacerbated if diabetes is accompanied by high blood pressure. The patient is at risk of chronic renal failure.

Destruction of the vessels of the retina in diabetes is called retinopathy. Pathology leads to severe disorders in the functioning of the organs of vision.

Many people are probably familiar with the term “diabetic foot”. We are talking about the defeat of blood vessels and nerve endings of the lower extremities. In difficult cases, doctors are forced to resort to amputation of the limb due to purulent-necrotic processes.

The most common complications of diabetes are hypoglycemic or diabetic coma. The pathological condition is caused by a sharp drop or a critical increase in blood glucose levels. These manifestations of the disease pose a direct threat to the life of the patient, require urgent medical care.

Diabetes mellitus – where to go

Diagnosis and treatment of diabetes are done by endocrinologists. The doctor conducts an examination, prescribes the necessary studies, according to the results of which he selects the drug, determines the regimen of administration, and develops a diet.

If there are warning signs that may indicate diabetes, or for a preventive check, a person needs to contact a therapist who will give a referral for laboratory tests to determine the level of glycemia.

Diabetes Treatment Methods

To date, in endocrinology there is no way to cure diabetes once and for all. Antidiabetic therapy is carried out throughout life. Modern methods of treating diabetes are based on diet therapy and medication. They compensate for insulin deficiency, help maintain normal blood glucose levels.

Diabetes and alcohol

In most cases, doctors prohibit patients with diabetes from drinking alcohol. In combination with sugar-lowering drugs, alcohol can lead to severe hypoglycemia. Under the influence of alcohol, the liver ceases to release glucose into the blood, that is, the sugar level will fall. With a critical decrease in glucose, a person will lose consciousness. To eliminate life-threatening hypoglycemia after alcohol is possible only by intravenous administration of a glucose solution.

If a diabetic cannot refuse alcohol, it is necessary to eat something before drinking it. These should be foods with a sufficient content of “slow” carbohydrates. Liqueurs, sweet wines, spirits should be avoided. Semi-dry or dry wine can be consumed no more than 250 ml per day with mandatory control of blood glucose levels.

Medical treatment of diabetes

Drugs for diabetes help maintain normal blood glucose levels. Type 1 diabetes requires daily insulin therapy. In some cases, injections are combined with taking hypoglycemic drugs. They slow down the synthesis of glucose from glycogen in the liver.

In type 2 diabetes, insulin is produced, but its communication with the cells is broken. The patient is prescribed medication to increase sensitivity to the hormone and slow down the absorption of glucose in the intestine.