Where does the disease come from in children
Each type of diabetes has its own causes. There are risk factors that provoke the disease:
- mother or both parents are diabetic;
- high birth weight (more than 4.5 kg);
- the presence of diathesis;
- frequent colds;
- weakened immunity;
- metabolic disease.
Many people are concerned about whether the disease is transmitted. The main cause of type 1 diabetes in children is heredity. This confirms a large number of family cases when the disease occurs in a child in the presence of pathology in parents, grandparents. The autoimmune process is initiated by an external factor – viruses. Exposure to the ECHO virus, Coxsackie B, herpes, rubella, Epstein-Barr leads to chronic insulitis and insulin deficiency. The disease can cause enterovirus, rotavirus, measles and others.
In children with a genetic predisposition, the disease can be triggered by intoxication, artificial feeding, a monotonous carbohydrate diet, as well as stress and previous surgeries. Type 2 diabetes in children develops against the background of dysfunction of the pancreas – when b-cells do not produce or secrete insulin. As a result, the sensitivity of the receptors is reduced.
The order of development of pathology
Insulin is a hormone produced by the small pancreas. By the age of 10, iron weighs 50 grams and is 12 cm long. The main function is the production of insulin. Iron should cope with the task by the age of 5.
The greatest risk of developing diabetes occurs between the ages of 5 and 11 years. At this time, the metabolism is fast, sugar is well absorbed. Every day a child needs 10 grams of carbohydrates. The exchange is controlled by an incompletely formed nervous system, failures may occur.
The risk group includes adolescents in puberty, premature babies and children who experience heavy loads.
Features of the course of the disease depend on the age at which the pathology manifested itself. In babies, diabetes is severe, leading to complications. Parents should understand that children with diabetes require care and lifelong treatment.
Symptoms and first signs
The disease in a child can develop at any age. There are two peak periods – 5-8 years and puberty, when increased growth and metabolism.
The disease of the first type manifests itself acutely. Signs of type 1 diabetes in children are: severe weakness and dizziness when hungry and full. From the onset of the first symptoms to a diabetic coma, it can take from 1 to 3 months.
The first signs of the development of diabetes in children:
- increased urination (over 2 liters per day);
- thirst and dry mouth;
- increased appetite with a sharp decrease in body weight;
- severe course of infectious diseases;
- fatigue without exertion;
- distracted attention;
- elevated blood glucose (exceeds 120 mg) in the analysis;
- rapid decrease in visual acuity;
- nausea and vomiting.
Parents may notice that the urine has become sticky, leaving starched stains on underwear. There may be dryness of the mucous membranes and epidermis – peeling of the skin on the soles, palms. Among the symptoms of diabetes in children are irritation in the corners of the mouth (“jamming”), stomatitis. Pustules, boils, diaper rash appear. In girls, the development of the disease is accompanied by vulvitis, in boys – by balanoposthitis. If the disease first manifests itself during the puberty of a girl, this can provoke a violation of the menstrual cycle.
In babies, it is difficult to identify symptoms, so pay attention to concomitant manifestations. Small children are characterized by nocturnal enuresis, itching, anxiety, and digestive problems. When sick, an infant greedily drinks milk and water. Because of the sweet, sticky urine, diapers are hard. Such signs indicate a moderate and severe form of the development of pathology. With a mild form, the disease is diagnosed by a blood and urine test.
Diagnosis of diabetes
The first person to identify the symptoms of the disease is the pediatrician who observes the child. The doctor draws attention to the classic signs: increased urination, a feeling of thirst, hunger and weight loss.
During the examination, the doctor may notice a diabetic blush, reduced skin turgor, and a crimson tongue. If symptoms of diabetes mellitus are detected, the pediatrician transfers the patient to an endocrinologist for treatment and observation.
To make an accurate diagnosis, the child is sent for a laboratory test. It is necessary to take a blood test for sugar levels, daily monitoring is used. They also check insulin, proinsulin, glucose tolerance, the level of glycated hemoglobin, blood acid-base balance.