Causes of diabetes
Type I diabetes mellitus is still a disease with an unexplained cause of development. It is known that the leading role in the course of the disease is played by the destruction of pancreatic cells that secrete insulin – β-cells of the islets of Langerhans – by the body’s immune system. As a result of this process, an absolute deficiency of insulin develops in the body and there is a need for its artificial replacement. Because of this, type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes.
If, in insulin-dependent diabetes, antibodies to insulin are not found in the human body, the mechanism for the development of the disease is called idiopathic, that is, not established.
Factors predisposing to the onset of type 1 diabetes
- genetic predisposition;
- intrauterine viral infections, viral infections in adolescents, such as rubella, measles, chickenpox, etc.;
- feeding infants with formulas based on cow’s milk or containing gluten;
- the use of products with an excess content of nitrosaceous dyes and preservatives.
Type II diabetes mellitus is a consequence of overeating and overweight, and this form of diabetes develops not only with visible obesity, but also with hidden – abdominal, when adipose tissue is concentrated in the abdomen and surrounds the internal organs.
Factors predisposing to type 2 diabetes
- unhealthy diet, replete with sweets and fats;
- lack or deficiency of physical activity;
- overweight and obesity;
- violation of glucose tolerance.
Gestational diabetes refers to any disorders of carbohydrate metabolism in the body, first discovered during pregnancy. During a normal pregnancy, an increase in the rate of glucose utilization is observed, due to the fact that glucose is absorbed not only by the cells of the woman, but also by the fetus. It is also normal for pregnant women to develop a slight insulin resistance – a decrease in the sensitivity of cells to insulin. Significant insulin resistance and blood glucose levels above 7.8 mmol/l are signs of GDM.
Risk factors predisposing to the development of gestational diabetes
- overweight and obesity;
- weight gain of more than 10 kg after 18 years;
- violation of glucose tolerance;
- glucosuria (sugar in the urine) during this or a previous pregnancy;
- hydramnios and / or the birth of a child weighing over 4500 g or a stillbirth in history;
- rapid weight gain during the current pregnancy;
- the age of the pregnant woman is more than 30 years;
- the presence of CD-2 in close relatives;
- having GDM during a previous pregnancy.
Symptoms of Diabetes
The onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus, that is, its symptoms, is characterized by the rapid development of adverse symptoms with ketoacidosis (a shift in the acid-base balance of the body to the acidic side due to an excessive amount of ketone bodies) or even diabetic coma.
The main symptoms of type 1 diabetes
- dry mouth and throat, intense thirst, polyuria (increased urine output);
- increased appetite, accompanied by weight loss;
- skin itching along with increased susceptibility of the body to skin and other infections (furunculosis, nail and skin fungus, tuberculosis, pneumonia);
- decreased sexual desire and potency;
- decreased visual acuity;
- increasing phenomena of damage to the oral mucosa and tooth tissues (caries, gingivitis, stomatitis, periodontal disease, etc.);
The increase in hyperglycemia is accompanied by dry skin and mucous membranes, redness of the cheeks, forehead and chin.
Complications of insufficiently or completely uncontrolled type 1 diabetes are
- trophic ulcers of the lower extremities;
- development of osteoporosis and diabetic osteoarthropathy;
- the occurrence of diabetic neuropathy;
- diabetic retinopathy;
- impaired fertility (the ability to conceive and have a child) in young women;
- impaired mental and physical development in children with DM-1 (Mauriac’s syndrome);
coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction, which are the cause of death in over 50% of patients with type 1 diabetes.
The most unfavorable complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus are diabetic coma (ketoacidotic, lactic acidotic and hyperosmolar).
Non-insulin dependent diabetes
It is characterized by a rather long period of asymptomatic course of the disease. The first signs of type 2 diabetes appear gradually. The patient is concerned about the same symptoms as with SD-1, but less pronounced: dry mouth, thirst, pruritus, pain in the legs, infections of the skin and mucous membranes. Also, arterial hypertension, visual impairment, various neuropathies and erectile dysfunction are often noted.
It does not have any specific manifestations that would make it possible to suspect its presence without laboratory diagnosis. Therefore, all pregnant women, regardless of the indicators of a previous pregnancy, undergo a laboratory test to determine the level of glucose without and with exercise.
As diabetes develops, complications arise that affect almost all organs and systems. The condition of the skin, kidneys, blood vessels, nervous system suffers from the disease. The patient suffers from chronic muscle pain. In severe forms of diabetes, there may be loss of consciousness, failure of some organs, coma.