Questions that are awkward to ask

Questions that are awkward to ask

The term “diabetes” refers to a group of diseases that cause serious metabolic disorders, in particular failures in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. When you have diabetes, your body has problems with insulin, the hormone that regulates blood glucose (sugar) levels. In some cases, the secretion of the hormone is disturbed (the pancreas loses its ability to produce insulin), in others, the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. There are dozens of types of this disease, but the most common are type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Some numbers

At the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries, diabetes began to terrorize the planet three times more actively: in 2016, the World Health Organization presented the Global Report on Diabetes, which contains sad numbers: “The number of people with diabetes increased from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million life, cheese and intermediate states – onov in 2014″.

Doctors and scientists have made a disappointing prediction: by 2030, diabetes will become the 7th cause of death worldwide. With this disease, they are trying to actively fight by all possible means, the main of which is prevention. World Diabetes Day is celebrated on November 14th.

Since diabetes is a serious threat for every modern person, you need to know more about it. We have tried to answer the most common questions asked about diabetes in simple and understandable words.

What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?

The most common types of diabetes are insulin dependent (type 1 diabetes) and non-insulin dependent (type 2 diabetes). The difference becomes clear from the names: in type 1 diabetes, the body stops producing insulin, and the patient needs daily administration of this hormone. Without insulin, the concentration of glucose in the blood rises – and a person can fall into a diabetic coma.

There are two subtypes of insulin-dependent diabetes: 1A, in which the immune system itself destroys pancreatic cells due to a genetic failure, and little-studied 1B – doctors still cannot understand its pathogenesis. In type 2 diabetes, the situation is different: insulin is produced normally, but the tissues of the body do not perceive it well, therefore, less glucose is transported into the cells.

To compensate for this violation, the pancreas produces twice as much insulin, experiencing an enormous load. It is this type of diabetes that is most common, also called the “disease of civilization”: type 2 diabetes is caused by poor eating habits, overweight and a sedentary lifestyle. It is type 2 diabetes that is diagnosed in more than 90% of cases in the United States, Europe and Canada.

Does that mean I can get diabetes?

Yes, it is quite possible: type 2 diabetes develops in people who do not monitor their health. If you eat just anything and spend your days slouching between an office chair and a home sofa, then there is reason to think about the possible consequences. Diabetes can manifest itself at any age: recently it has been increasingly noted even in children.

What about the other types of diabetes you mentioned above?

There are less common types of diabetes that are similar to type 1 diabetes. Also, diabetes can develop against the background of other serious diseases of the pancreas: for example, pancreatitis.

I heard somewhere that diabetes can develop due to pregnancy, is this true?

This, unfortunately, happens. This is called gestational diabetes: the hormones that the expectant mother produces interfere with insulin, resulting in an increase in glucose levels in the body. Gestational diabetes is successfully treated, but pregnant women need to be under the supervision of doctors.

Diabetes also seems to be insipidus, right?

It happens, but, as Leonid Kanevsky said in his program, this is a completely different story. These are completely different diseases. Diabetes mellitus is a problem with insulin, and diabetes insipidus is most often the result of problems with vasopressin – an antidiuretic hormone.

Diabetes insipidus occurs due to kidney disease, brain tumors, and traumatic brain injury, but can also be hereditary. With diabetes, in addition to the name, it is united by two characteristic symptoms: excruciating thirst and frequent, profuse urination.

How do you know when it’s time to go to the doctor?

Characteristic symptoms for type 1 diabetes: frequent urination, dry mouth and unquenchable thirst, weight loss with a normal diet, constant feeling of hunger. Less often, weakness and fatigue, visual impairment, headaches can be added. Diabetes of the 2nd Type is much more insidious: it can proceed almost imperceptibly, and complications that have already developed make you pay attention to the disease. To be sure of your own health, you need not only to monitor your physical activity and nutrition, but also check your blood for glucose levels more often.

And what complications does diabetes cause?

Very scary. Diabetes increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, including heart attack and stroke, by 2-3 times. In the patient’s body, the circulatory system suffers greatly: due to damage to small vessels, diabetic neuropathy develops – a complex lesion of the body’s nerve cells. Consequences Journal of life, cheese and intermediate conditions – i Neuropathy can manifest itself in different ways, for example, diabetic foot syndrome: the patient’s legs literally begin to rot, and sometimes they have to be amputated. Complications of diabetes can also cause blindness and kidney failure. Ultimately, a person with diabetes may lose their ability to work and remain disabled.