Diagnosis of diabetes
Diagnosis of diabetes
Several methods are used in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. First of all, it is necessary to take a blood test for glucose, it is taken on an empty stomach, a blood sample is taken from a finger. A glucose tolerance test is used. The patient takes fasting glucose dissolved in water, then determine the level of glucose in the blood.
To confirm the diagnosis of diabetes, a urine test for glucose and ketone bodies is used. If ketone bodies are found, then the patient is sick. Glycosylated hemoglobin is determined: with an increased level of this substance, the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is confirmed. Another method for diagnosing diabetes is to determine the level of insulin and C-peptide in the blood. In type 1 diabetes, the levels of insulin and C-peptide are much lower than normal; in type 2, the values may be within the normal range.
Treatment of diabetes
The treatment of diabetes mellitus remains an open question for doctors today. The disease is dangerous because it gives irreversible consequences to other organs. Type 2 diabetes can be minimized by maintaining a healthy diet. With proper nutrition and an active lifestyle, a person can recover from type 2 diabetes. However, this lifestyle must be permanent in order to exclude the possibility of relapse.
How to treat diabetes? According to the statements and research of endocrinologists, type 1 diabetes mellitus and complex forms of type 2 diabetes cannot be completely cured. Constant intake of drugs that maintains the required rate of insulin in the blood will help to avoid complications on other body systems. Special drugs and devices have been developed to control blood glucose levels. In type 1 diabetes, you need to constantly inject insulin into the blood, as a coma may occur and the person will die. Treatment in this case takes a lifetime.
Treatment options for diabetes may include surgery to implant an artificial pancreas. This is a special device that analyzes the level of sugar in the blood and releases the required amount of insulin into the blood. This method has achieved some success, but has a number of side effects on the body. Doctors have not yet succeeded in replacing natural insulin with an artificial sample that would suit every patient.
Diet for diabetes
The main point in the treatment of diabetes is maintaining a proper diet. Products for diabetes should be strictly limited in calories and sugar content. At home, it is impossible to calculate the correct norm of food for every day, so nutritionists have introduced a conventional unit of measurement – a bread unit. It shows the amount of carbohydrates contained in the product. The higher this indicator, the more dangerous the product for the patient.
A diabetic diet should contain vegetables such as kale, spinach, lettuce, green peas, tomatoes, and cucumbers to speed up satiety. To maintain the functioning of the liver suffering from diabetes, it is necessary to include foods rich in lipotropic factors (soy, oatmeal, cottage cheese) in the diet, limit fatty meat and fish broths, and fried processing. It is forbidden to consume the following products: sweets, chocolate, pastries, sweets, salty, spicy, spicy and smoked snacks, animal fats, alcoholic and sweet drinks, sweet fruits and dried fruits.
Prevention of diabetes
Prevention of diabetes does not help with all forms of the disease. In many cases, type 1 diabetes cannot be avoided because it is inherited. Type 2 diabetes can be prevented and completely cured with proper treatment and nutrition.
Measures to prevent type 2 diabetes primarily include maintaining a normal weight, since obesity is the main cause of this disease. It is necessary to control normal pressure and lipid metabolism. Engage in regular physical activity, excluding overwork. Nutrition should be regular, fractional, contain the optimal amount of nutrients and vitamins.
Diabetes mellitus belongs to the group of endocrine diseases. Pathology develops when there is a violation of the production or action on the tissue of insulin, a hormone of the islet apparatus of the pancreas, which promotes the absorption of glucose. Sugar can accumulate in the blood (hyperglycemia) and in the urine (glycosuria).
A long-term violation of glucose utilization leads to a breakdown in all types of metabolism. The pathology of the insular apparatus often proceeds with disorders of other organs and systems of varying severity. Lesions of small vessels, retina, kidneys, nervous system are characteristic.
Usually, diabetes mellitus has quite pronounced metabolic deviations and is easily diagnosed. It is more difficult to identify the disease in the initial and preclinical stages, when the patient’s complaints are minimal or absent. This requires an in-depth targeted study. Detection of the disease at an early stage is an important condition for effective treatment and prevention of complications.
Often the symptoms do not cause concern in the patient, and he does not consider it necessary to see a doctor. Sometimes there are no manifestations of the disease, and hyperglycemia is detected only during a routine examination.